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Kashmir: Modern People Dispute Ancient Lands: Documents D

Document Analysis

Directions:  Read the summaries of the documents below used to revoke  the special status in India.  Analyze these documents using the following questions to compare them to those in used in the establishment of special status (Document Set A).  

1. Prior to August, 2019, what governmental functions did India oversee on behalf of the State of Jammu & Kashmir?

2. How did the first two government actions listed below allow for the 3rd action to occur?

Directions Continued: Watch othe video to the right of the document summaries to examine Pakistan;s reaction to India's actions.

3. How does the reaction of the Pakistani people to India's actions differ from that of the Pakistani Government? How are these reactions contributing to the conflict?

Additional Directions: Now, watch one or both of the news stories provided at right to gain a better understanding of what is currently happening in the region.  Use the following questions to analyze the impact of the revocation of special status on the people of the Kashmir Valley.

4. What is the impact of India's actions on the people of Kashmir? How are these actions increasing the conflict? Provide specific examples as evidence to support your claim.

2019 - Revocation of Special Status

In 1947, Article 370 of the Indian Constitution had established special "state" status for Jammu & Kashmir (see document group A).  This allowed J&K some level of self-rule while under the protection of India.

In August, 2019, the following actions were taken by the government of India:

1.  Presidential Order 272 
The President of India used Article 370 of the Indian Constitution to modify Article 367.   

  • Referenced an older clause in Article 367 of the Indian Culture that states that the Governor of J&K (appointed by India) is a part of the government of J&K.
  • Added a new clause to Article 367 that changes the words Constituent Assembly of K&K to read State Legislative Assembly of J&K. 
  • This allowed for the Indian government to confer with the Governor and the state legislature to make changes to the the agreement between India and J&K.

2. Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019 

  • The Indian parliament converted J&K from a STATE of India to two separate union TERRITORIES. This means there is now NO state legislature. Therefore, the India appointed Governor of J&K is the only remaining government of J&K.  
  • By abolishing the state, the state legislature was also abolished.  The Governor (appointed by India) is now the only government of J&K.

3. Presidential Order 273
The President of India uses Article 367 of the Indian Constitution to modify Article 370. 

With the Governor of J&K, the president now changes Article 370 of the Indian Constitution (which had given J&K special status). It is now constiutional law that "all provisions" of the Indian Constitution apply to the territory of J&K.  

RESULT:  Revocation of Jammu and Kashmir Special Status.

Pakistani Administred Kashmir Reacts

The Free Press Jammu & Kashmir

Extension Activity:  Recently, India imposed a shutdown of the internet across the Kashmir Valley, as well as with in some other parts of the country.  Consider why the government might curtail the freedom of information at this time.  How might open access to the internet impact a government's power?

Library Information and Media Center - Monona Grove High School - Monona, Wisconsin

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